Jun 12, 2020 in Tutoring
Livestock as economic productive factors
Livestock contains economic ability which empowers the economic status of people.
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Livestock are domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce commodities such as food, fiber and labor. Livestock are defined as being useful animals; which implies a commercial purpose, or being reared for financial gain. Raising animals (animal husbandry) are component of modern agriculture and it has been practiced in many cultures since the transition to farming from hunter-gather lifestyles. King James Version of the Bible, refer to livestock in general as "cattle", as opposed to the word "deer", which then was used for wild animals and were not owned. The word cattle is derived from Old North French 'catel' which meant all kinds of movable personal property including livestock. Animal-rearing has originated during the cultural transition to settled farming communities rather than hunter-gatherer lifestyles and these are 'domesticated' when their breeding and living conditions are controlled by humans. Over time, the collective behaviour, life cycle, and physiology of livestock have changed radically (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Livestock).
The grazing of livestock is sometimes used as a way to control weeds and undergrowth. For example, in areas prone to wild fires, goats and sheep are set to graze on dry scrub which removes combustible material and reduces the risk of fires.:ConservationThe raising of livestock to conserve a rare breed. This can be achieved through gene banking and breeding programmes. Farming practices vary dramatically world wide and between types of animals. Livestock are generally kept in an enclosure, and fed by human-provided food are intentionally bred. The enclosure of livestock in pastures and barnsis a relatively new development in the history of agriculture. Indoor production systems are typically used for pigs, dairy cattle and poultry, as well as for veal cattle, dairy goats and other animals, depending on the region and season. Animals kept indoors are generally farmed intensively, as large space requirements would make indoor farming unprofitable and impossible. However, indoor farming systems are controversial due to the waste they produce (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Livestock).
About 60 percent of the world's agricultural land is grazing land, supporting about 360 million cattle and over 600 million sheep and goats. The great advantage of grazing livestock is that they convert to a useful product resources which would otherwise be wasted. Indeed, grazing animals can improve the diversity of grasses by dispersing seeds with their hooves and in their manure. By trampling the soil they also break up the crust and stimulate the growth of grass. Arid rangelands are a dynamic and highly resilient ecosystem provided that the number of people and animals which the land supports remains in balance with their environment. Indeed, the ability to recover after drought is one of the main indicators of long term environmental and social sustainability of arid grazing systems.
Many of the world's grazing areas are threatened with degradation, especially in the semi-arid and sub-humid zones and the land is exhausted and returned to fallow, it does not revert to good pasture. Furthermore, it is only by herding animals between grazing lands that pastoralists make best use of the resources. Land ownership policies, which prevent livestock farmers from owning the land they use, can be very damaging. Farmers are naturally unwilling to improve land unless they are sure that they can reap the benefits. Customary land use practices have been replaced by "free for all" access to communal lands. This has overturned what once was a highly regulated system that helped to ensure a sustainable balance between livestock and the environment (www.fao.org/docrep/x5304e/x5304e03.htm).
Animals such as horses, donkey, and yaks can be used for mechanical energy. Prior to steam power, livestock were the only available source of non-human labor. They are still used for this purpose in many places of the world, including ploughing fields (drafting), transporting goods, and military functions. Modern farming techniques seek to minimize human involvement, increase yield, and improve animal health (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Livestock). Thus, the livestock have been interpreting not only for the production of agricultural Crops but it utilized for several social purpose also like Transport (Cart) and celebrating social traditive etc. Especially, in the agriculture field it has been used for pre-preparation and post-preparation of crops. Practically, the burden of works of labours have shared with the livestocks that the harden workes to be easier to the human.
Capital (Raw materials)
Cashmere: The word “cashmere” is originatedfrom the Kashmir province in India which was famous for this fine wool. Cashmere goat is a general name for about 20 goat breeds and it is produced in China (Inner Mongolia, Tibet and Shinjian provinces), Mongolia, parts of Afghanistan, Iran, Kirgiz, Kazakhstan, India, Pakistan, and North Korea. Mongolia with about 30% of the world’s production is rated to be the second largestproducer of cashmere. Livestock Marketing Project produced about 720 tonnes of cashmere in 2011, which accounted for 16% of national output and the best cashmere is produced by 1-3 year old goats.
Sheep wool: In 2011 there were about 15.7 million sheep of about 20 breeds producing various types of wool such as fine,semi-fine, carpet type and coarse wool. According to the National Statistics Office, 21.7 thousand tonnes of wool were produced in 2000 of which 79.9% of coarsewool, 18.9% of carpet type wool and 1.2% of fine and semi-fine wool. It has classified by types as fine, semi-fine, carpet wool and coarse wool; by colour as white and brown; and by quality as I and II classes for fine, semi fine and carpet wool, and I, II and III classes for coarse wool.
Goat skin: Production of goat skins increased up to 3.3 million pieces in 2011. During 2010, 6.4 million of goat skins were produced of which about 3.0 million originated from dead animals. The AHLM Project targeted provinces produced 534.7 thousand of goat skins in 2011 which accounted for 16.2% of national output. Peak time of goat skin production is usually in the slaughtering season of the country but goat meat is believed to be good food for summer time.
Horse hide: In the period from 2006 -2011 an average of 88.8% of horse hides were produced as result of slaughtering and the rest 12.2% were derived from dead horses (included dead foals) which died as result of malnutrition, diseases, sever winter, natural disasters, etc. The risk to cause various types of damage to a hide is quite high when traditional slaughtering methods are used.The AHLM Project-targeted provinces including Bulgan,Orkhon, Darkhan Uul, Selenge, Tov provinces and Ulaanbaatar city produced 67.2 thousand of horse hidesin 2011 which accounted to 34.7% of the national production. According to the National Customs Office, 93.4% of rawhorse hides produced in Mongolia have been exported during the last six years, on average.
Cattle hide: According to Mongolian National Statistics Office, in 2011, 437.0 thousand pieces of cattle hides (including yak hides) were produced in Mongolia, which made up 5%of the country’s entire skins and hides’ output. About 15.8% of cattle hides are produced in the Western region, 44.9% in the Khangay region, 19.3% in the Central region and 17.6% in the Eastern region of Mongolia. The AHLM Project-targeted provinces produced 117.1 thousand of cattle hides in 2011 which accounted for 18.7% of national production.Above 90% of cattle is slaughtered using traditional method which can damage hides in various ways but the statistics shows that, no raw cattle hides were exported in 2011, although in 2010 about 2.9 thousand pieces were exported (www.made-in-mongolia.info/index.php...).
Since many livestock are herd animals, they were historically driven to market. In developing world countries, having access to markets has been shown to encourage farmers to invest in livestock, with the result that they improve their livelihoods. The International Crops Research Institutefor the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) has worked in Zimbabwe to help farmers make their most of their livestock herds. ICRISAT worked to improve local farming systems, through 'Innovation platforms' at which farmers, traders, rural development agencies and extension officers could discuss the challenges they faced. If farmers devoted half of three hectares to maize and half tomucuna(velvet bean) in a rotation system, they only met 20% of their biomass needs. In Gwanda, the platform helped create a strong local market for goats, raising the value of a single animal from 10US$ to 60US$. This gave the farmers a great incentive to invest in their own goats by growing their own feed stock, buying in commercial feed and improving their rangeland management techniques. Because the platform has helped regulate prices, farmers now plan ahead and sell animals at auction, rather than just selling one or two animals at their farm gate. Stock show sandfairs are events where people bring their best livestock to compete with one another and encourage young people to raise livestock for show purposes (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Livestock).
Livestock farmers have suffered fromwild animal predation and theft by rustlers. In North America, animals such as the gray wolf, grizzly bear, cougar, and coyote are sometimes considered a threat to livestock. In Eurasia and Africa, predators include the wolf, leopard, tiger, lion, dhole, Asiatic black bear, crocodile, spotted hyena and others. In South America, feral dogs, jaguar, anaconda and spectacled bear are a threat to livestock. In Australia, the dingo, foxes, wedge-tailed eagles are common predators, with an additional threat from domestic dogs because they may kill seemingly for fun, leaving the carcass uneaten (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Livestock).
Livestock diseases compromise animal welfare, reduce productivity, and can infect humans. Animal diseases may be tolerated, reduced through animal husbandry, or reduced through antibiotics and vaccines. In developing countries, animal diseases are tolerated in animal husbandry, resulting in considerably reduced productivity, especially given the low health-status of many developing country herds. Disease management for gains in productivity is often the first step taken in implementing an agriculture policy. Disease management can be achieved through changes in animal husbandry. These measures may aim to control spread using biosecurity measures, such as controlling animal mixing, controlling entry to farm lots and the use of protective clothing, and quarantining sick animals. Diseases also may be controlled by the use of vaccines and antibiotics. The issue of anti-biotic resistance has limited the practices of preventative dosing such as antibiotic-laced feed. Countries will often require the use of veterinary certificates before transporting, selling or showing animals. Disease-free areas often rigorously enforce rules for entry of potentially diseased animals (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Livestock).
Economic and social benefits
The value of global livestock production in 2013 has been estimated at about 883 billion dollars However, economic implications of livestock production extend further. Livestock provide a variety of food and non-food products; the latter include leather, wool, pharmaceuticals, bone products, industrial protein and fats, etc. For many abattoirs, very little animal biomassmay be wasted at slaughter. Even intestinal contents removed at slaughter may be recovered for use as fertilizer. Livestock manure helps maintain fertility of grazing lands. From barns and feeding areas, manure is commonly collected for fertilization of cropland. In some places, animal manure is used as fuel, either directly (as in some developing countries), or indirectly. In regions where machine power is limited, some classes of livestock tend to be used as draft stock, not only for tillage and other on-farm use, but also for transport of people and goods. In 1997, it was estimated that livestock provided energy for between 25 and 64 percent of cultivation energy in the world's irrigated systems, and that 300 million draft animals were used globally in small-scale agriculture. livestock production serves as a source of income, it can provide additional economic values for rural families, often serving as a major contributor to food security and economic security. It can serve as insurance against risk and an economic buffer (of income and/or food supply) in some regions and some economies. Some crop growers may produce livestock as a strategy for diversification of income sources, to reduce risk that may relate to weather, markets and other factors (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Livestock).
The issue of raising livestock for human benefit raises the issue of the relationship between humans and animals, in terms of the status of animals and obligations of people.Animal welfareis the viewpoint that animals under human care should be treated in such a way that they do not suffer unnecessarily. Generally, the animal welfare perspective is based on an interpretation of scientific research on farming practices. Animal welfaregroups generally seek to generate publicdiscussion on livestock raising practices and secure greater regulation and scrutiny of livestock industry practices and it's rights groups usually seek the abolition of livestock farming. A number of animal husbandry practices have been the subject of campaigns in the 1990s and 2000s and have led to legislation in some countries. livestock are used as a source of power, they may be pushed beyond their limits to the point of exhaustion. The public visibility of this abuse meant, Broiler hens may be de-beaked, pigs may have deciduous teeth pulled, cattle may be de-horned and branded, dairy cows and sheep may have tails cropped, merino sheep may be mulesed, and many types of male animals are castrated. Animals may be transported long distances to market and slaughter are have been subject to legislation and protest (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Livestock).
Consumption of such natural resources have put up the economic level of country at growing trend though such living things of natural resources as livestock also not exemption from the participation of economic development of the same. The preparation on dramatic statement considered the effective supports of livestocks for the prosperity of nation in the aspects of economic productive factors have brought and it may be going on visibly or after hide the sight of public however, these performance are still satisfied and marvellous one for the improvements in different fields. But, availability of most required livestock have been declining due to predation, diseases and not well following of Animals welfare policies are mentioned above.